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Major Mealybug Species


  1. Planococcus citri Risso
  2. Pseudococcus Comostocki Kuwana
  3. Pseudococcus Adonidium Linne
  4. Nipaecoccus viridis Newstead

Planococcus citri Risso


Taxonomic Position

Class: Insecta
order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Homoptera
Superfamily: Coccoidea
Family: Pseudococcidae

Common used Names

  • Pseudococcus citri Risso
  • Dactylopius citri Boisduval
  • Coccus tuliparum Bouché
  • Dactylopius destructor Comstock
  • Dorthesia citri Risso
  • Planococcus citricus Ezzat & McConnell
  • Pseudococcus brevispinus Targioni Tozzetti
  • Coccus citri Risso
  • Lecanium phyllococcus Ashmead
  • Dactylopius brevispinus Targioni Tozzetti
  • Phenacoccus spiniferus Hempe
  • Planococcus cubanensis Ezzat & McConnell
  • Planococcus cucurbitae Ezzat & McConnell
  • Pseudococcus citricoleorum Marchal

Common Names

  • citrus mealybug
  • grape mealybug
  • common mealybug
  • dompolan-Mealybug
Planococcus citri
Planococcus citri
Image source: Chapot, H. and Delucchi, V.L. 1964. Maladies, Troubles et Ravageurs des Agrumes au Maroc.

Geographic Distribution

Planococcus citri is widespread in Morocco, and other various geographical areas, besides areas populated with Coccus hesperidum Linne or Lepidosaphes becki Newman specially on citrus in garden well protected from winds. It distributes also in Caucasus, Central Asia, Florida, Cyprus, Iran, Jordan valley and Palestine (coastal region). And in Tropical and Subtropical. These insects cause damages on fruitage trees and glass houses crops. The insect hosts are indefinite. It infested almost all flowerage plants specially grapes, citrus, fig, olives, berry, etc… in semi Tropic regions, and ornamental plants, coffee, mango, banana, tobacco, glasshouses and garden. It infests aerial parts of plants and prefers usually shadowy parts like stem, flower buds and young fruits. It has been said that it carries some viruses' diseases.

Planococcus citri, Geographic Distribution
Planococcus citri, Geographic Distribution
Image source: CD-Crop Protection Compendium

Morphological Description

Females: Adult females Planococcus citri are about ¾ inch. The shape is oval, flat and yellowish orange membrane covered with a white mealy wax extends with 17 pairs of spines along the body margin, the longest of them is the posterior pair.
Males: Adult males of citrus Mealybug are small; each has two wings and two long segments at the posterior end. Males appear before females; and they are winged.

Wintering

Mealybug over winter as adult females, or larvae, in the last instar inside stems' cracks, under prepuces and in other protected areas. Insect dies at temperature less than 14 °C . Early in the spring insects begin feeding on twigs. Females begin deposit oviposit after 2-3 weeks in waxy egg sac beside their place and food.

Biology

Eggs: Are small, oval and light yellow 0.3 mm in length. Females oviposit several hundred eggs within 10-20 days in cottony egg sacs attached to leave, fruit, or twigs. Eggs number swings between 300-580 eggs vary according to the host and prevailed weathered conditions. Eggs number, for instance is 200 in 16 °C temperature, while it is 350 eggs in 27 °C temperatures. It reaches its maximum in 27 °C and 60% humidity.
First nymph: Five light brown vertebras
Second nymph: 1.7-2.6 × 2.9-4.7 in measure, reddish brown. The antennas consist of six vertebras.
Third nymph Female: 3.7-5 × 7.7 mm in measure the antennas consist of seven vertebras.
Third nymph Male: 2.8 × 4.5 - 4.9 mm in measure, the antennas consist of nine vertebras.
Males differ from females by having a four the instar, which is the pupal within cottony chamber 5.43×2 mm in length, the antennas consist of 10 vertebras; parts of the mouth are absent.
Eggs Sac: is 0.7-2 × 0.6-1.1 cm in length.

Planococcus citri symptoms
Planococcus citri symptoms
Image source : CIBA-GEIGY La Protection Phytosanitaire des agrumes Imprime par CIBA-GEIGY SA. Bal, Suisse. 160 pp.

Life cycle

Copulation occurs immediately after maturity of adult insects, during the second week of April to the first week of May. Males live several days (about a week) and dies after fertilization. Females live 22-47 days after fertilization, and begin landing in the egg stage in the early of May, this lasts until mid June when stop oviposit. This is a summary of a male and female life cycle

Time unit Females Males
Day 78 - 135 77 - 134
Week 19.28 - 11.14 11 - 19.14
Month 2.6 - 4.46 2.56 - 4.46

Female: egg-first nymph -second nymph-third nymph-adult insect.
Male: egg-first nymph-second nymph-third nymph-pupa-adult insect
Development periods depended on temperatures and humidity, the optimum conditions are 26 °C ; 60% humidity. 2-3 generation/year under normal conditions, and includes equal males and females numbers.

Damages

Planococcus citri mobile when they are silky fringed, and colonize in safe sites on trees, under twigs, or at the basses of fruit where navels are deformed, inside big group fruits, between thick leaves or under leaves on thick twigs. Mealybug invade tree surfaces, extract plant sap, excrete honey dew provides a medium for the growth of sooty mould. Sooty mould and white wax grow on plants and reducing photosynthesis, deform fruits and lessen its price. Insects release, also, toxins cause dropping of fruits and leaves, and dries twigs. Larvae and adult females extract plant sap, and this stop the growth; leaves become yellow and drop.

Planococcus citri infestation symptoms Mealybug infestation symptoms
Planococcus citri infestation symptoms Planococcus citri infestation symptoms
Image source : CIBA_GEIGY La Protection Phytosanitaire des agrumes Imprime par CIBA-GEIGY SA. Bal, Suisse. 160 pp. Image source : Chapot H. 1964. Maladies, Troubles et Ravageurs des Agrumes au Maroc Institut National de la Recherche Agronomiqe Rabat,. 339 pp.

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pseudococcus comostocki Kuwana

Taxonomic Position

Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Homoptera
Superfamily: Coccoidea
Family: Pseudococcidae

Common Names

comstock mealybug
Psedococcus comostocki
Psedococcus comostocki
Integrated Pest Mangement For Citrus Second Edition. 1991. University of California.

Geographic Distribution

It is thought that Mealybug originates in China and Japan; it is distributed in Taiwan, South America, Palestine and Cyprus. It was first discovered in the San Joaquin Valley in 1967; and become harmful insect on citrus trees in 1990. It is often confused, in agrarian literatures, with other species known, nowadays, as Planococcus citriculus in Japan; lives on stone kernel trees, berry, apple, and pear. It a serious problem, in South Russia, on berry which is the food of silkworms. In the early of 1920 P. comostocki distributed on Catalpa and populated on apple trees in the eastern American States; in Canada, also, distributed on apple trees so that insecticides were used an mortalized natural enemies, or in places where fertilizers were intensively used, damaged fruits and weakened trees as well. Mealybug distributed in California where first infestation was reported in 1967.

Description and Development

Psedococcus comostocki are soft, oval, flat and covered with a white mealy wax thicker than that on Planococcus citri. Comostock Mealybug are covered with 17 segments of waxy filaments, the last pair is about ¼ longer than the body. The body is pink. Mealybug are the most dangerous insects infest several plants (berry, fruitage trees, potatoes, and citrus) they over winter mainly in the egg stage at about 35 cm under the ground, beneath the root stem of the plants. Eggs are located within lose waxy nets similar to wolly soft sac. Eggs hatch in spring (March and April) giving larval instar pass through three stages before the adult female. The first larval instar is 0.3-0.6 mm in length; the second instar larval is 1.2 mm in length, while the third instar larval is 1.7 mm in length. A female oviposits about 200-600 eggs/sac. Fecundity varies according to temperature, lightening, feeding, and the host species. Generation duration is 42-65 days. Mealybug produces 2-4 generations/year. This species of mealybug is produced on potatoes growth.

Symptoms Psedococcus comostocki
Symptoms Psedococcus comostocki
Image source: Ahmad Rae, 1998. Lattakia insectary Reared Natural Enemies. Syria

Damages

P. comostocki cause a reduction in photosynthesis, followed by leaves and fruit drop, and reducing tree vigor. It was reported in 1953 that P. comostocki is contagious of week growth disease on Cacao.

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Pseudococcus Adonidium Linne

Taxonomic Position

Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Homoptera
Superfamily: Coccoidea
Family: Pseudococcidae

Other Common Used Names

  • Pseudococcus longispinus Targioni-Tozzetti
  • Dactylopius adonidum Linnaeus
  • Dactylopius citri Boisduval
  • Dactylopius longifilis Comst.
  • Dactylopius longispinus Targioni-Tozzetti
Pseudococcus Adonidium
Pseudococcus Adonidium
Image source : Chapot H. 1964. Maladies, Troubles et Ravageurs des Agrumes au Maroc Institut National de la Recherche Agronomiqe Rabat,. 339 pp.

Common Names

longtailed mealybug

Description and Development

It is poly stages and distributed like Planococcus citri , but it is less available. We can easily distinguish between them through the different appearance of the waxy spines, so that the posterior tails are too long, and longer than the body. The female deliver a birth through the motherly hole, it delivers 200 ones grow quickly in the coastal region. Being born, it does not resemble other species, which infest citrus.

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Nipaecoccus viridis Newstead

Taxonomic Position

Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Homoptera
Superfamily: Coccoidea
Family: Pseudococcidae

Other Common used Names

Recorded in Syria 1994 (Mohamad Ahmad, Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria)

  • Nipaecoccus vastator Maskell
  • Dactylopius perniciosus
  • Dactylopius viridis
  • Nipaecoccus corymbatus
  • Nipaecoccus perniciosus
  • Pseudococcus corymbatus
  • Pseudococcus perniciosus
  • Pseudococcus defluiteri Betrem
 Nipaecoccus viridis
Nipaecoccus viridis
Image source: Ahmad Rae, 1998. Lattakia insectary Reared Natural Enemies. Syria

Common Names

  • pink Mealybug
  • cotton, mealybug
  • lebbeck, mealybug

Geographic Distribution

It distributes in Asian countries, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, India, Taiwan, Iraq and Jordan. It was reported in Syria, for the first time in July 1994. Arab And Near East Plant Protection Newsletter, No. 27, December, 1998.

Description and Development

The Female insects are more-or-less spherical (2mm in diameter), dark red in color. The egg sac contains few hundreds of eggs, which produce upon hatching brown larvae. The proportion of males is usually low. This insect attacks all kinds of citrus varieties such as Clementine, Satsuma, Washington navel, and Lemon. It also attacks mulberry. (Mohamad Ahmad)

Damages

The Infestation with this pest is characterized by the presence of white spherical shiny masses, which are in fact the egg sacs. Pest colonies are usually present on fruit pedicles, leaf petioles and shoot basis. Some time, it invades the leaf blades, causing malformation. The invasion of fruit pedicles and leaf petioles leads to retardation in growth and early fruit drop.
The insect is rarely observed individually. Honeydew is abundantly produced the insect, which leads to the excessive growth of sooty molds. (Mohamad Ahmad)

Nipaecoccus viridis
Nipaecoccus viridis
Image source: Ahmad Rae, 1998. Lattakia insectary Reared Natural Enemies. Syria

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New Publications
The Arab Scientists in Cooperation with The High Institute of Marine Research. Publish all the researches abstracts, which presented in The Regional Workshop on Marine Sciences and Natural Resources, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria, 25-26 May 2004.


New Publications
The Arab Scientists in Cooperation with The Egyptian Society for Biological Control of Pests . Publish all the researches abstracts, which presented in The First Arab Conference of Applied Biological Pest Control, Cairo, Egypt, 5-7 April 2004.


Conferences, Fez
The First International Symposium on Environnement protection for development Biotechnological aspects. Fez, December
15 – 17, 2004.


Conferences, Syria
The Second Syrian-Egyptian conference in the Agriculture and Food. Agriculture Faculty, Al-Baath university, Homs, Syria. 25-28 April, 05


Conference,Yemen
Current Status of Plant Protection in Yemen and Future Strategy. Faculty of Agriculture, Sana'a University, Sana'a, yemen. December 18-20/2004


Conferences Canada
The 9th International Conference of the Orthopterists’ Society Canada, on August 14 19, 2005


Conferences, Egypt
The First Arab Conference on Applications of Biological Control of Pests in Arab Countries


Workshop,Lebanon
New Workshop Middle-East Academy for Medicine of Ageing First Annual Middle-East Age & Aging Meeting 8-11 April, 2004

  
Publications
Arab Society for Plant Protection (ASPP) in Cooperation with The Arab Scientists
Publish all the researches abstracts, which presented in the Eighth Arab Congress of Plant Protection, held in Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, El-beida City, Libya, October 12-16,2003

  
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